What has happened to religion in modern times? Why has it happened? Wat might happen next? This volume is the first to bring together a comprehensive selection of readings which illustrate and analyse religion's encounters with the forces of modernization--including nationalism, capitalism, colonialism, democracy, gender and identity politics. Drawing on scholarly analysis, empirical research and vivid concrete examples, the book offers a picture of a religious world which is increasingly characterized by by the coexistence of: old faiths and new spiritualities, a turn to tradition and a turn to experience, decline and revival, privitization and poltical militancy, and tolerance and intolerance.