Shame and guilt have captured the attention of scholars and clinicians for generations, but have only recently begun to be subjected to systematic empirical scrutiny. This book reports on the growing body of knowledge on these key self-conscious emotions, integrating findings from the authors' original research program with other data emerging from clinical, social, personality, and developmental psychology. The authors demonstrate that shame and guilt have significant and surprisingly disparate implications for many aspects of human functioning, with particular relevance for interpersonal relationships. The book examines such compelling topics as the varying levels of empathy shown by 'shame-prone' and 'guilt-prone' individuals; links to anger, hostility, and aggression; and effects of shame and guilt on psychological adaptation and moral behavior. Clinical applications of the research are discussed in depth, as are methodological and assessment issues; developmental considerations; and implications for parenting, education, and social policy.