The twentieth century witnessed considerable debate over the question of the possibility of a 'Christian philosophy.' Two major figures of that revival were Itienne Gilson and Bernard Lonergan, both of whom read Aquinas in quite different ways on key questions. Nonetheless, this work brings these two authors into conversation. Debates continue in the twenty-first century, but the context has shifted, with Radical Orthodoxy and new atheism standing at opposite ends on the relationship between philosophy and theology. This work will demonstrate how the two thinkers, Gilson and Lonergan, may still contribute to a better understanding of this relationship and so shed light on contemporary issues.