This commentary approaches Romans, the single most influential document in the Christian tradition, from a literary-rhetorical perspective, viewing the letter as a persuasive argument, that transforms readers through a celebration of the gospel. In discussing both Jews and Gentiles, Paul shares a vision of God who always acts inclusively. The commentary is based on a new translation of Romans by the author and it is followed by comments written in essay form. Following the comments are verse-by-verse notes on the text. Brendan Byrne, S.J., is professor of New Testament at Jesuit Theological College, within the United Faculty of Theology, Parkville, Melbourne, Australia. He obtained his doctorate from Oxford University and in 1990, Pope John Paul II named him a member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission.