The central focus of this book is Paul's use of the Old Testament wherein the eleven Isaianic citations are examined to show how the Isaianic new Exodus motif is the contextualization for each of the citations in Romans 9-11. The Dodd/Hays concept of total context is fundamental to the discovery of the Old Testament new Exodus motif and is recognized by many scholars to be an important principle in the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament. In Romans 9-11, the Isaianic usages in their new Exodus contexts form an important interpretive role in understanding Paul's argumentation in his epistle. The citations bring to bear the prophet's authority and God's Exodus wisdom that speak to the questions and difficulties of the early Roman church, especially concerning God's faithfulness toward Israel. Four major themes summarize the appropriation of Paul's Isaianic passages in Romans 9-11. These four themes form a broader over-arching theme of the Isaianic new Exodus wisdom polemic. This wisdom polemic confronts individuals who rebel against God's character, method, and plan. In addition, God instructs his people to marvel over Himself and His wise plan.